Weekly Roundup 152: A Curated Linkfest For The Smartest People On The Web!
Handpicked to satisfy your intellectual curiosity!
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Via Financial Direction.co.uk
Via The New Yorker
Best Articles of the Week:
Does Inequality Make Us Unhappy? | Wired Science – via Wired.com – Inequality is inevitable; life is a bell curve. Such are the brute facts of biology, which can only evolve because some living things are better at reproducing than others. But not all inequality is created equal. In recent years, it’s become clear that many kinds of wealth disparity are perfectly acceptable — capitalism could not exist otherwise — while alternate forms make us unhappy and angry.The bad news is that American society seems to be developing the wrong kind of inequality. There is, for instance, this recent study published in Psychological Science, which found that, since the 1970s, the kind of inequality experienced by most Americans has undermined perceptions of fairness and trust, which in turn reduced self-reports of life satisfaction.
Bill Gates on being the top 1 percent, Fox News and taxes – via Seattle Times- Asked about economic disparity, how money is influencing politics and the challenge voters face making informed decisions, Gates said “the world at large is less inequitable today than at any time in history.”
If We Want a Chance at a Decent Future, the Movement Here and Around the World Must Grow | – via AlterNet – Before the ’70s, banks were banks. They did what banks are supposed to do in a capitalist economy: take unused funds, like, say, your bank account, and transfer them to some potentially useful purpose, like buying a home or sending your kid to college. There were no financial crises. It was a period of enormous growth; the largest period of growth in American history, or maybe in economic history. It was sustained growth in the ’50s and ’60s and it was egalitarian. So the lowest percentile did as well as the highest percentile. A lot of people moved into reasonable lifestyles — what’s called here “middle class” (working class is what it’s called in other countries).Well, now the world is indeed splitting into a plutonomy and a precariat, again in the imagery of the Occupy movement, the 1 percent and the 99 percent. The plutonomy is where the action is. It could continue like this, and if it does, then this historic reversal that began in the 1970s could become irreversible. That’s where we’re heading. The Occupy movements are the first major popular reaction which could avert this. It’s going to be necessary to face the fact that it’s a long hard struggle. You don’t win victories tomorrow. You have to go on and form structures that will be sustained through hard times and can win major victories. There are a lot of things that can be done.Unless the process that’s taking place here and around the world, unless that continues to grow and kind of becomes a major social force in the world, the chances for a decent future are not very high.
Video- Malcolm Gladwell Predicting Occupy Wall Street (before it happened)? – via Value Investing World
Ghost busters, parapsychology, and the first study of inattentional blindness – via theinvisiblegorilla.com – Until last week, I thought I knew the full history of research on inattentional blindness. Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice a fully-visible but unexpected object or event when you are focusing attention on something else. I’ve been conducting research on the topic since the late 1990s, and I thought I was familiar with all of the work that came before mine. I knew all about Ulric Neisser’s work in the 1970s on selective looking, including many of his unpublished studies from that era. I knew about the dichotic listening studies that partially motivated his research. I knew about Arien Mack and Irv Rock’s groundbreaking studies during the 1990s on inattentional blindness in simplified computer displays (their book gave the phenomenon its scientific name). I knew about studies of tunnel vision in pilots as well as the literature on focused attention and distraction that provides a mechanistic explanation for what we see and what we miss.
The Anti-Gladwell: Kahneman’s New Way to Think About Thinking – Maria Popova – Life – via The Atlantic – The mind functions thanks to a delicate, intricate, sometimes difficult osmotic balance between the two systems, a push and pull responsible for both our most remarkable capabilities and our enduring flaws. From the role of optimism in entrepreneurship to the heuristics of happiness to our propensity for error, Kahneman covers an extraordinary scope of cognitive phenomena to reveal a complex and fallible yet, somehow comfortingly so, understandable machine we call consciousness.What’s most enjoyable and compelling about Thinking, Fast and Slow is that it’s so utterly, refreshingly anti-Gladwellian. There is nothing pop about Kahneman’s psychology, no formulaic story arc, no beating you over the head with an artificial, buzzword-encrusted Big Idea. It’s just the wisdom that comes from five decades of honest, rigorous scientific work, delivered humbly yet brilliantly, in a way that will forever change the way you think about thinking.
The Obesity Epidemic: is the Metabolic Syndrome a Nutritional Deficiency Disease? – via Value Investing World by Stephanie Seneff – The United States is currently facing an obesity epidemic across its population, affecting children and adults alike. It is now estimated that 30% of Americans are overweight, and the problem has been worsening over time.Why does the US have this problem? Why are we the “leaders” in obesity and related health issues such as heart disease and diabetes, despite our incredibly high dollar investment in health care? What are we doing wrong?My research, detailed in this essay, shows that in many cases the underlying cause of obesity lies with basic nutritional deficiencies, which can be corrected through simple dietary changes. These deficiencies are likely caused, in large part, by two ill-conceived, yet supposedly “healthy”, modern day lifestyle choices: an excessively low-fat diet, and sun phobia. The modern preference of sugar-laden over calcium-rich foods also plays a role.
Economics and psychology.Perfect rationality versus bounded rationality – via Munich Personal RePEc Archive – Classical mathematical algorithms often fail to identify in time when the international financial crises occur although, as the classical theory of choice would suggest, the economic agents are rational and the markets are or should be efficient and behave also rationally. This contribution does not pretend to give a complete answer to these questions, but it will highlight some well-known limits of the classical theory of rational choice and compare this theory of choice with the approach that seeks to combine economics and psychology and that has established itself as cognitive or behavioral economics. In particular, the present paper will focus on the juxtaposition of the concepts of perfect rationality and bounded rationality. It concludes with some references to the literature of behavioral finance which has given important contributions in explaining the behavior and the anomalies of financial markets.
Report finds massive fraud at Dutch universities : Nature News – via www.nature.com – “We have some 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals where we are actually sure that they are fake, and there are more to come,” says Pim Levelt, chair of the committee that investigated Stapel’s work at the university.Stapel’s eye-catching studies on aspects of social behaviour such as power and stereotyping garnered wide press coverage. For example, in a recent Science paper (which the investigation has not identified as fraudulent), Stapel reported that untidy environments encouraged discrimination
Our Universities: Why Are They Failing? by Anthony Grafton – via The New York Review of Books – It’s not hard to see why colleges and universities resist simple evaluations. There are now almost five thousand universities and colleges—both two-year and four-year—in the US. Millions attend them, including around 40 percent of eighteen-to-twenty-four-year-old Americans and a great many older students. Postsecondary education stretches from the tree-shaded Olympuses of the Ivy-plus private group and the imposing quadrangles of the great public universities to urban community colleges that run twelve hours a day, surrounded only by vast parking lots that are never big enough to accommodate everyone. It’s private and public, mass and elite, ancient and ivy-covered, contemporary and cutting-edge. No generalization could do justice to this vast and varied scene.
How to Become a Confidence Man/Quack Prophet – via Lapham’s Quarterly – Soothsayers have been around as long as recorded history, probably longer—after all, knowing what’s to come has always been accorded more value than knowing what’s already happened. Whether Isaiah shouting from the mountaintop or Jim Cramer shouting from the television screen, there has always been power and notoriety to be gained from prognostication. But considering that most (if not all) of these seers—whatever market expertise or God-given insight they might claim for themselves—are just shooting in the dark, it’s not altogether clear what makes a good prophet. Showmanship and some lucky guesses, to be sure, but beyond that? This is the question that surrounds the strange and enduring popularity of one of the unlikeliest prophets: an ex-doctor from southern France named Nostradamus.
The Shadow Superpower – via Longform.org – The world’s fastest growing economy isn’t China; it’s the “unheralded alternative economic universe of System D” aka the $10 trillion global black market.
Nassim Talebs Chapter 2 of Upcoming Book – via Value Investing World
Knowing and Making: Prompted Pareto improvements – via www.knowingandmaking.com – Pareto efficiency is one of the standards that is often used in economic theory as something we should aspire to, because it is a standard almost nobody can disagree with. It means that we should consider any transaction, or change in an economic allocation, to be a good thing if it makes at least one person better off and nobody worse off. A transaction which meets these criteria is called a Pareto improvement, and a system in which no possible Pareto improvement can still be made is called Pareto optimal.
Status, Race, and Money – via pss.sagepub.com – A deeply entrenched status hierarchy in the United States classifies African Americans as lower status than Caucasians. Concurrently, African Americans face marketplace discrimination; they are treated as inferior and poor. Because having money and spending money signify status, we explored whether African Americans might elevate their willingness to pay for products in order to fulfill status needs. In Studies 1 and 2, explicit activation of the race concept led some African Americans to pay more than they would otherwise pay and also more than Caucasians. Individual differences in perceived status disadvantage and racial identification moderated this result. In Study 3, when race was salient, an overt status threat (inferior treatment in a purchasing context) similarly led African Americans, but not Caucasians, to pay more than they would otherwise pay. This research illustrates how African Americans whose status is threatened use spending as a way to assert status.
Game Theory 101: an excellent introduction to game theory, and interview with William Spaniel – via Mind Your Decisions – The book covers the basics of game theory, including the Prisoner’s Dilemma, mixed strategy equilibrium, and it also covers extensive form games (game trees) in which players move in sequence, like the ultimatum game. There are tons of diagrams and lengthy discussions to help you understand the concepts.
Robert Axtell On Non Normal Distribution -via Seth’s Posterous- First, as I mentioned a moment ago, agent-based models can allow you to simulate the world multiple times, allowing good inquiry into what could have happened. The models also generate frequently counterintuitive results. Second, the models much better resemble how the world works: agents with local information, local interaction, seeking to serve some specific objectives. They’re just basically trying to make it in the world. Finally, these models can, I think, allow us to much better understand some of the empirical findings that arise that we can document empirically. But we really don’t know how those bottom-up processes work, so these models allow us some insight into those bottom-up processes.
Anthropology Meet Capitalism – via Living Anthropologically – Anthropology cannot make the mistake of accepting the capitalist fairy tale. We must challenge each part of the fable. “When powerful financiers, politicians, and economists tell billions of humans that they should adopt the market as sole social regulator, anthropologists are well placed to show that what is presented as a logical necessity is actually a choice”
Behavioral Economics, Complexity Research, Decision Making, Psychology, & Risk
Ted Talk: Paul Zak: Trust, morality — and oxytocin – via Video on TED.com – What drives our desire to behave morally? Neuroeconomist Paul Zak shows why he believes oxytocin (he calls it “the moral molecule”) is responsible for trust, empathy and other feelings that help build a stable society.
Ted Talk: Daniel Wolpert: The real reason for brains – via Video on TED.com – Neuroscientist Daniel Wolpert starts from a surprising premise: the brain evolved, not to think or feel, but to control movement. In this entertaining, data-rich talk he gives us a glimpse into how the brain creates the grace and agility of human motion.
With Age Comes Wisdom – via pss.sagepub.com – In two experiments, younger and older adults performed decision-making tasks in which reward values available were either independent of or dependent on the previous sequence of choices made. The choice-independent task involved learning and exploiting the options that gave the highest rewards on each trial. In this task, the stability of the expected reward for each option was not influenced by the previous choices participants made. The choice-dependent task involved learning how each choice influenced future rewards for two options and making the best decisions based on that knowledge. Younger adults performed better when rewards were independent of choice, whereas older adults performed better when rewards were dependent on choice. These findings suggest a fundamental difference in the way in which younger adults and older adults approach decision-making situations. We discuss the results in the context of prominent decision-making theories and offer possible explanations based on neurobiological and behavioral changes associated with aging.
Inside the mind of the octopus – via Orion Magazine – MEASURING THE MINDS OF OTHER creatures is a perplexing problem. One yardstick scientists use is brain size, since humans have big brains. But size doesn’t always match smarts. As is well known in electronics, anything can be miniaturized. Small brain size was the evidence once used to argue that birds were stupid—before some birds were proven intelligent enough to compose music, invent dance steps, ask questions, and do math.Octopuses have the largest brains of any invertebrate. Athena’s is the size of a walnut—as big as the brain of the famous African gray parrot, Alex, who learned to use more than one hundred spoken words meaningfully. That’s proportionally bigger than the brains of most of the largest dinosaurs.
The New Science Behind Your Spending Addiction – via The Daily Beast – In fact, neuroscientists are mapping the brain’s saving and spending circuits so precisely that they have been able to rev up the saving and disable the spending in some people (in the lab, alas; not at the cash register). The result: people’s preferences switch from spending like a drunken sailor to saving like a child of the Depression. All told, the gray matter responsible for some of our most crucial decisions is finally revealing its secrets. Call it the “moneybrain.”Psychologists and behavioral economists, meanwhile, are identifying the personality types and other traits that distinguish savers from spenders, showing that people who aren’t good savers are neither stupid nor irrational—but often simply don’t accurately foresee the consequences of not saving. Rewire the brain to find pleasure in future rewards, and you’re on the path to a future you really want.
A Brief Guide to Embodied Cognition: Why You Are Not Your Brain – via Scientific American Blog Network – As Lakoff points out, metaphors are more than mere language and literary devices, they are conceptual in nature and represented physically in the brain. As a result, such metaphorical brain circuitry can affect behavior. For example, in a study done by Yale psychologist John Bargh, participants holding warm as opposed to cold cups of coffee were more likely to judge a confederate as trustworthy after only a brief interaction. Similarly, at the University of Toronto, “subjects were asked to remember a time when they were either socially accepted or socially snubbed. Those with warm memories of acceptance judged the room to be 5 degrees warmer on the average than those who remembered being coldly snubbed. Another effect of Affection Is Warmth.” This means that we both physically and literary “warm up” to people.
BPS Research Digest: David Buss: Derogation of competitors – via bps-research-digest – Men worldwide place a premium on physical appearance in mates. And my research showed that women, far more than men, are especially observant about the most minor physical imperfections in other women, and in mate competition point them out in subtle and not-so-subtle ways.What is strange is why verbal input would have any influence at all on a man’s perceptions of a woman’s attractiveness. A woman’s attractiveness should be something that men can gauge perfectly well with their own eyes. But in fact verbal input matters. The next time I ran into the attractive woman, I found myself looking at her thighs. And indeed, they were a tad heavy. She still looked good, but my perceptions of her attractiveness lowered a bit.
Your Brain Knows a Lot More Than You Realize | Memory, Emotions, & Decisions – via DISCOVER Magazine – Only a tiny fraction of the brain is dedicated to conscious behavior. The rest works feverishly behind the scenes regulating everything from breathing to mate selection. In fact, neuroscientist David Eagleman of Baylor College of Medicine argues that the unconscious workings of the brain are so crucial to everyday functioning that their influence often trumps conscious thought. To prove it, he explores little-known historical episodes, the latest psychological research, and enduring medical mysteries, revealing the bizarre and often inexplicable mechanisms underlying daily life.
Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Functionr – via Sage Pub – Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.
Elizabeth Loftus: Using Fake Memories to Enhance Self Prestige – via Bps Research – People remember their grades as better than they were. People remember that they voted in elections that they did not vote in. People remember that their children walked and talked at an earlier age than they really did. These are some prime examples of how we distort our memories in ways that allow us to feel better about ourselves, and perhaps allow us to live a happier life. But another finding is that people overestimate their personal contribution to a joint effort. If you ask people who have contributed to joint effort to provide a percentage that is their contribution, the total might add to l50 per cent. Recognizing this human tendency allows one to adjust the estimate of one’s own contribution and feel less frustrated with our partners (whether these are life partners contributing to the housework, or work partners contributing to a research effort, or any collection of two or more who work for a common goal). I talked with Mary and Jim, individually, about this phenomenon.
Max Bazerman: Blind Spots – via Max H. Bazerman and Ann E. Tenbrunsel – Researchers have documented that our ethical “blind spots” keep us from noticing the unethical behavior that surrounds us and acting to create more ethical environments. To take one example, Bernard Madoff was a crook who intentionally engaged in illegal behavior. More interestingly, many other people had access to sufficient data to have known that Madoff’s business was a Ponzi scheme, yet they did notice or act on this data. The majority of Madoff’s investments occurred through feeder funds. These feeder funds either marketed their access to Madoff to potential investors or claimed they had access to an exotic, highly successful investment strategy. In actuality, even the latter group of feeder funds wase simply turning the money they collected over to Madoff. Managers of the feeder funds often received a small percentage of the funds invested, plus 20% of any investment profits earned. As Madoff claimed an amazing record of success, those managing the feeder funds were getting rich.
Very brief meditation training produces brain changes associated with positive emotions. – via mindblog.dericbownds.net – It is known that the ratio of left frontal to right frontal lobe activation is relatively higher in individuals with higher positive affect – this effect can be monitored by e.e.g. electrodes placed on the head. (In light of Gilbert’s recent observation that “A wandering mind is an unhappy mind,” I wonder if resting frontal asymmetry correlates with mind wandering….) Davidson and colleagues have shown that a fairly rigorous 8-week meditation training program can cause a significant increase the left-sided anterior activation associated with positive affect.
How walking through a doorway increases forgetting – via bps-research-digest – The key finding is that memory performance was poorer after travelling through an open doorway, compared with covering the same distance within the same room. “Walking through doorways serves as an event boundary, thereby initiating the updating of one’s event model [i.e. the creation of a new episode in memory]” the researchers said.Another interpretation of the findings is that they have nothing to do with the boundary effect of a doorway, but more to do with the memory enhancing effect of context (the basic idea being that we find it easier to recall memories in the context that we first stored them). By this account, memory is superior when participants remain in the same room because that room is the same place that their memory for the objects was first encoded.
Telling the Story of the Brain’s Cacophony of Competing Voices – via NYTimes.com – Dr. Gazzaniga, 71, now a professor of psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, is best known for a dazzling series of studies that revealed the brain’s split personality, the division of labor between its left and right hemispheres. But he is perhaps next best known for telling stories, many of them about blown experiments, dumb questions and other blunders during his nearly half-century career at the top of his field.Now, in lectures and a new book, he is spelling out another kind of cautionary tale — a serious one, about the uses of neuroscience in society, particularly in the courtroom.
Freedom, Anarchy and Conformism in Academic Research – via Velupillai @ Econpapers– In this paper I attempt to make a case for promoting the courage of rebels within the citadels of orthodoxy in academic research environments. Wicksell in Macroeconomics, Brouwer in the Foundations of Mathematics, Turing in Computability Theory, Sraffa in the Theories of Value and Distribution are, in my own fields of research, paradigmatic examples of rebels, adventurers and non-conformists of the highest caliber in scientific research within University environments. In what sense, and how, can such rebels, adventurers and non-conformists be fostered in the current University research environment dominated by the cult of ‘picking winners’? This is the motivational question lying behind the historical outlines of the work of Brouwer, Hilbert, Bishop, Veronese, Gödel, Turing and Sraffa that I describe in this paper. The debate between freedom in research and teaching, and the naked imposition of ‘correct’ thinking, on potential dissenters of the mind, is of serious concern in this age of austerity of material facilities. It is a debate that has occupied some of the finest minds working at the deepest levels of foundational issues in mathematics, metamathematics and economic theory. By making some of the issues explicit, I hope it is possible to encourage dissenters to remain courageous in the face of current dogmas.
When Kahneman meets Manski: Using framing effects to interpret subjective expectations of equity returns – via Gouret & Hollard- To understand how decisions to invest in stocks are taken, economists need to elicit expectations relative to expected risk-return trade-off. One of the few surveys which have included such questions is the Survey of Economic Expectations in 1999-2001. Using this survey, Dominitz and Manski find an important heterogeneity across respondents that can hardly be accounted for by simple models of expectations formation. This paper claims that much of the heterogeneity derives from pathologies affecting respondents. Adapting a principle of dual-reasoning borrowed from Kahneman, we classify respondents according to their sensitivity to these pathologies, and find a strong homogeneity across the less sensitive respondents. We then sketch a model of expectation formation.
Business, Economics, Finance, Investing, Start-ups
The Shameless Republican Race to Cut Rich People’s Taxes – James Kwak – Business – via The Atlantic – The tax plans from Rick Perry and Herman Cain would make millionaires vastly richer while raising taxes on the middle class. It’s voodoo economics gift-wrapped for rich voters.
The Intelligent Investor: Why Spotting Bubbles Is Harder Than It Looks – via WSJ.com – But new research tells the untold tale of Mackay’s own behavior in the face of a bubble—and it is a shocker. A mathematician and former cryptographer at Bell Labs named Andrew Odlyzko has spent much of the past decade researching a forgotten stock mania. One of its biggest boosters was none other than Charles Mackay. A bubble in British railroad stocks began in 1844, only three years after Mackay published his book, and it didn’t start to collapse until late 1845. Even with the history of market folly fresh in his mind, Mackay urged British investors to pile into railway stocks, whose extravagant prices were based on absurdly unrealistic projections of future growth.
Seeding entrepreneurship – via The Ideas Economy – New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg and entrepreneur, not known for shyness, recently proclaimed New York City as America’s new entrepreneurship capital, roaring past Boston in venture capital and soon to leave Silicon Valley in the dust as the “go to” destination for entrepreneurs. Indeed, the world media are awash with proposals to kick start entrepreneurship as a strategy for economic revival, with support for venture finance at the heart of many programs. Yet the title of Harvard’s Josh Lerner’s recent book, “Boulevard of Broken Dreams,” is no coincidence, because proclamations are one thing, actual success is quite another.Fortunately, there is actually a lot of experience around the world about what works and what doesn’t. Here are some practical principles that the Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project have been identifying and developing for public leaders who have, correctly in my opinion, identified entrepreneurship as an essential plank in economic policy.
Why Is This Cargo Container Emitting So Much Radiation? – via Longform.org – A shipping container spewing radiation appears mysteriously at an Italian port, prompting a larger look at the anonymous world of international shipping.
How Groupon Was Founded – via www.businessinsider.com – His company had been the darling of the business press for the past two years. Suddenly it’s not.He can’t hang on to a COO. The SEC is asking questions. Industry executives are calling him a ponzi schemer. Early employees are demanding six-figure pay for 9 to 5 hours. One even filed a lawsuit. Merchant customers are screaming. And Mason and his board, having helped themselves to $900 million of cash that could have gone to the company, are are now being blasted for incompetence and greed.What a turnabout from a few months earlier, when Groupon was the talk of Wall Street. Then, Groupon was one of the fastest-growing companies in history, spurning $6 billion takeout offers from Google, preparing to go public at a valuation fo $25+ billion. And now everyone was talking about it running out of cash!So what happened? How did things go so wrong?And now that Groupon is finally going public, how will the Groupon story end?This story, as told to us by insiders, answers some of these questions. Our sources all asked to remain anonymous, either in deference to the SEC’s “quiet period” rules for companies that plan to go public or in order to remain in compliance with severance agreements with Groupon. Groupon itself declined to comment.
How Much Does The Entire, Big Internet Weigh? – via Open Culture – 5 million terabytes of information. That’s what you get when you bundle up all of the emails, videos, photos, web sites and sundry materials available on the web. Now here’s the big question: how much does all of that information weigh? No spoilers here. We’ll let the folks at VSauce give you the answer.
Overcoming Bias : More Random Hypocrisy – via www.overcomingbias.com – Leo Katz has a new book that also explains legal hypocrisy as mainly accidental. He says that when we make decisions based on multiple considerations, each consideration is like a voter in our minds. So just as there can be voting cycles where A beats B beats C beats A, our minds can similarly have non-transitive preferences. As a result our choices depend on how they are framed. When the law does this, it leaves legal loopholes that clever lawyers can exploit.Katz concludes that lawyers shouldn’t at all feel guilty about taking advantages of legal loopholes that appear to evade the law’s purpose, because, hey, there is no coherent purpose. He also excuses evading the laws of God as well as of men, as apparently one can’t expect God to be any more coherent than men, and he excuses trying to lie to associates indirectly rather than directly. It’s all good he says, no need to feel guilty.
What can animals tell us about earthquakes? « Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience Blog – via ihrrblog.org – There have been loads of reports of animals acting strangely shortly before an earthquake occurs. This has caused researchers to wonder whether animals can provide forewarnings to future quakes. Some seismologists say that the movement of underground rocks before an earthquake sends an electrical signal that only animals can sense. Other theories have also been proposed. The US Geological Survey has noted that animals are more likely to perceive of the signals emitted from earthquakes sooner than humans, meaning they can pick up on them before the shaking is felt.
The True Cost of Commuting – Streamline ReFinance
Why Startups Fail – via Visual.ly