Weekly Roundup 125: A Curated Linkfest For The Smartest People On The Web

Handpicked to satisfy your intellectual curiosity!

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Weekly Joke/Cartoon:

“Self-deception: a renewable resource that actually increases the more you use it. ”

Must Watch Video:

Free Short Documentary: Influencers – How Trends & Creativity Become Contagious

INFLUENCERS TRAILER from R+I creative on Vimeo.

Miguel’s Link Fest:

Noam Chomsky, Who Owns the World? – via Toms Dispatch –

There was also a sharp change in the U.S. economy in the 1970s, towards financialization and export of production. A variety of factors converged to create a vicious cycle of radical concentration of wealth, primarily in the top fraction of 1% of the population — mostly CEOs, hedge-fund managers, and the like. That leads to the concentration of political power, hence state policies to increase economic concentration: fiscal policies, rules of corporate governance, deregulation, and much more. Meanwhile the costs of electoral campaigns skyrocketed, driving the parties into the pockets of concentrated capital, increasingly financial: the Republicans reflexively, the Democrats — by now what used to be moderate Republicans — not far behind.

While wealth and power have narrowly concentrated, for most of the population real incomes have stagnated and people have been getting by with increased work hours, debt, and asset inflation, regularly destroyed by the financial crises that began as the regulatory apparatus was dismantled starting in the 1980s.

Elections have become a charade, run by the public relations industry. After his 2008 victory, Obama won an award from the industry for the best marketing campaign of the year. Executives were euphoric. In the business press they explained that they had been marketing candidates like other commodities since Ronald Reagan, but 2008 was their greatest achievement and would change the style in corporate boardrooms. The 2012 election is expected to cost $2 billion, mostly in corporate funding. Small wonder that Obama is selecting business leaders for top positions. The public is angry and frustrated, but as long as the Muasher principle prevails, that doesn’t matter.

That has been the regular process since the Reagan years, each crisis more extreme than the last — for the public population, that is. Right now, real unemployment is at Depression levels for much of the population, while Goldman Sachs, one of the main architects of the current crisis, is richer than ever. It has just quietly announced $17.5 billion in compensation for last year, with CEO Lloyd Blankfein receiving a $12.6 million bonus while his base salary more than triples.

The Coming Storm -The people of Bangladesh have much to teach us about how a crowded planet can best adapt to rising sea levels. For them, that future is now.
– via National Geographic – More than a third of the world’s people live within 62 miles of a shoreline. Over the coming decades, as sea levels rise, climate change experts predict that many of the world’s largest cities, including Miami and New York, will be increasingly vulnerable to coastal flooding. A recent study of 136 port cities found that those with the largest threatened populations will be in developing countries, especially those in Asia. Worldwide, the two cities that will have the greatest proportional increase in people exposed to climate extremes by 2070 are both in Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong, with Khulna close behind. Though some parts of the delta region may keep pace with rising sea levels, thanks to river sediment that builds up coastal land, other areas will likely be submerged.

Unit Bias: Cooking, Dieting and Investing – via Psyfi Blog- The analogy between investing and eating is a fascinating one, and it’s highly likely that similar behavioural issues underlie the problems we seem to have with both. In both cases evolutionary adaptations designed to aid our survival in prehistory are dangerous in modern life. The trick is always to do your analysis: count your calories and analyse your stocks. The analysis forces us to use our more developed forebrains and takes us away from reacting and into thinking.

Too Hard for Science? Philip Zimbardo–creating millions of heroes
– via SciAm- If outside influences can make people act badly, can they also be used to help people do good? In “Too Hard for Science?” I interview scientists about ideas they would love to explore that they don’t think could be investigated. For instance, they might involve machines beyond the realm of possibility, such as particle accelerators as big as the sun, or they might be completely unethical, such as lethal experiments involving people. This feature aims to look at the impossible dreams, the seemingly intractable problems in science. However, the question mark at the end of “Too Hard for Science?” suggests that nothing might be impossible.

Bad Credit: How Payday Lenders Evade Regulation – via The Nation- The Blacks are not unusual. Like millions of Americans with stagnant or shrinking incomes and considered too risky by mainstream banks, they have managed to pay for unexpected expenses by relying on an ever-changing catalog of expensive, shady consumer loans. This subprime lending industry exploded in the past decade and now stretches from Wall Street banks to strip-mall stores in working-class neighborhoods all over the country. It includes the infamous subprime mortgages sliced and diced into securities by the financial sector but also short-term loans against car titles, rent-to-own shops, personal finance companies, rapid-refund tax preparers and, perhaps most ubiquitous, payday lenders. These products are interdependent—often deliberately so—with one high-cost loan feeding into another, as struggling borrowers like the Blacks churn through fees and finance charges. Payday lenders alone have turned millions of small loans, most for $500 or less, into a $30 billion-a-year industry, according to an analysis of SEC filings by consumer advocate National People’s Action. The payday industry’s lobby group, Community Financial Services Association (CFSA), boasts that its members lend to more than 19 million households. Researchers estimate that there are more than 22,300 payday lending shops nationwide, a scale that rivals the number of Starbucks and McDonald’s franchises. Stores are concentrated in the South, where consumer lending laws remain loose, but they crop up across the Midwest and West as well. It’s a sprawling industry that ranges from small mom-and-pop stores to a handful of national chains like Advance America, the nation’s largest payday lender; in 2010 it issued almost $4 billion in loans averaging less than $400.

Why is China spending billions in the Caribbean? – via Globalpost- Caribbean governments have welcomed the investment — particularly the development aid — partially because other sources have dried up. For example, aid from the United States to members of CARICOM — a bloc of 15 Caribbean states and five associate Caribbean countries — has been falling since the 1980s, said Richard Bernal, former Jamaican ambassador to the U.S. and current director for the Caribbean at the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington.

How teams take over your mind – via boston.com- It may seem bizarre to argue that a team can strengthen its bond with the people who feel invested in its success by getting its butt kicked. But the link between losing and loyalty is less puzzling to experts in the growing field of fan studies, a burgeoning effort in the academy whose practitioners are interested in how sports fans think and why they feel as intensely as they do about their favorite teams. Why are some teams so easy to love and obsess over? What would it take for the Sox to truly lose the loyalty of their fans? As specialists in psychology, media studies, and marketing consider these questions, what they’re finding is that loyalty in sports is a deeper matter than just following the Sox because they’re from Boston, or hopping on and off the bandwagon as the Patriots’ fortunes rise and fall. Having a winning record, these researchers have found, is just a small part of what makes franchises like the Sox, or the Celtics, or the Bruins, the objects of intense dedication. Instead, their findings point to a variety of factors that contribute to fanship, including our instinct for tribal affiliation, our desire to participate in tradition, and our hunger for compelling characters and dramatic story lines.

Beyond the Limit: Pain, Hardcore Training, and Death – via Neuroanthropology- Ian Prichard, competitive distance swimmer and writer, has delivered a powerful tribute about his friend Fran Crippen, who died last year while racing in the warm waters of the United Arab Emirates over a 10 kilometer course. The essay, Beyond Limit: A Friend And Competitor Tries To Make Sense Of The Loss Of A Swimming Star, takes us into the training and the mentality it takes to do endurance swimming. It shows what we can do with our minds, pushing our body to the limits and sometimes beyond.

Flu Warning: Beware the Drug Companies! – via NY Review of Books- The discovery of what came to be known as “swine flu”—because pigs were the original source of the virus—aroused enormous concern in public health circles. The 1918 flu pandemic that killed tens of millions of people globally was also caused by an apparently new version of H1N1 influenza. Although other H1N1 viruses had been circulating in US populations for more than thirty years,1 the Mexican virus looked different and at first seemed to be especially aggressive. Soon the World Health Organization (WHO) began raising the alarm. Two billion people—one third of the global population—could contract the disease, the agency warned, and millions might die. World Bank economists suggested that the total cost of such a pandemic—counting lost business and increased health spending—could even reach 4.8 percent of global GDP.2 Panic spread throughout the world. In Mexico schools and offices were closed, flights were canceled, and the country lost $2.2 billion within a few weeks.3 In the UK, the government’s swine flu website received 2,600 hits per second and crashed soon after it opened; in New York so many people panicked over any flu-like symptom that hospital emergency rooms were swamped with ten times more patients than normal, worsening care for those who really needed it. The predicted dire emergency did not occur. In the 2009–2010 “influenza season” about 18,000 people died from the disease worldwide, fewer than in previous years, and the vast majority of victims had serious underlying conditions such as cancer, lung disease, AIDS, or severe obesity, which can impair breathing.7 Since one influenza strain usually dominates all others during a typical flu season, H1N1 may actually have saved lives by displacing more aggressive viruses. The WHO maintains that its decisions were based on the best available evidence, but last year European governments, stuck with hundreds of millions of euros’ worth of unused medicines and vaccines, began asking questions.

Trains, nukes, marriage, and vaccines (and anything else): Why the facts don’t matter – via SciAm- A lot has been written about why people deny the findings of science. Why, ask the devotees of reason, do people’s views on vaccines or climate change not match the overwhelming bulk of the evidence? To that question I would add this; why are these views so fiercely held? Why do disagreements about the facts generate such deep passions, and arguments that are often angry and sometimes violent? It’s almost like people whose views conflict with the bulk of the evidence feel personally threatened when their views are challenged.

Winners Love Winning and Losers Love Money – via Sagepub- Salience and satisfaction are important factors in determining the comparisons that people make. We hypothesized that people make salient comparisons first, and then make satisfying comparisons only if salient comparisons leave them unsatisfied. This hypothesis suggests an asymmetry between winning and losing. For winners, comparison with a salient alternative (i.e., losing) brings satisfaction. Therefore, winners should be sensitive only to the relative value of their outcomes. For losers, comparison with a salient alternative (i.e., winning) brings little satisfaction. Therefore, losers should be drawn to compare outcomes with additional standards, which should make them sensitive to both relative and absolute values of their outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants won one of two cash prizes on a scratch-off ticket. Winners were sensitive to the relative value of their prizes, whereas losers were sensitive to both the relative and the absolute values of their prizes. In Experiment 2, losers were sensitive to the absolute value of their prize only when they had sufficient cognitive resources to engage in effortful comparison.

That ratings agency downgrade meeting – via BBC- High above the capital city of a major country two credit rating executives, their sleeves rolled up, their Blackberries switched to silent, stare at each other over a desk:

Here’s Why Health Care Costs Are Outpacing Health Care Efficacy – via Freakonomics- In the United States, health care technology has contributed to rising survival rates, yet health care spending relative to GDP has also grown more rapidly than in any other country. We develop a model of patient demand and supplier behavior to explain these parallel trends in technology growth and cost growth. We show that health care productivity depends on the heterogeneity of treatment effects across patients, the shape of the health production function, and the cost structure of procedures such as MRIs with high fixed costs and low marginal costs. The model implies a typology of medical technology productivity: (I) highly cost-effective “home run” innovations with little chance of overuse, such as anti-retroviral therapy for HIV, (II) treatments highly effective for some but not for all (e.g. stents), and (III) “gray area” treatments with uncertain clinical value such as ICU days among chronically ill patients. Not surprisingly, countries adopting Category I and effective Category II treatments gain the greatest health improvements, while countries adopting ineffective Category II and Category III treatments experience the most rapid cost growth. Ultimately, economic and political resistance in the U.S. to ever-rising tax rates will likely slow cost growth, with uncertain effects on technology growth.

Invisible Gorillas, Working Memory & Social Media
via Invisible Gorilla Blog- So what did the new paper actually find? If you give people a highly demanding version of the basketball-gorilla task (separately count the aerial and bounce passes by the players wearing black) and exclude subjects who were unable to do the counting task well, those subjects remaining who scored highest on a measure of working memory were more likely to notice the gorilla than were those subjects scoring low on the working memory measure. Even with those constraints, working memory differences only help a little bit in predicting who will notice.

The Hazards of Teamwork: Does Group Study Disrupt Learning? – via APS- So what’s the long-range effect of collaboration on learning—say during the exam or even beyond? There is growing evidence, Rajaram argues, that if recall for particular information is disrupted during group collaboration, that information may be unavailable even later on, when the individual is alone. In other words, once recall is disrupted by the group dynamic, it may get disorganized or stored somewhere inaccessible—so it’s in effect forgotten for good. It’s also possible that individuals incorporate others’ mistakes—picked up during collaboration—into their own memories. Such contagion can also reshape long-term memories of new learning. It’s not all bad news, however. Working in groups appears to offer some long-term benefit by re-exposing learners to material they themselves may have forgotten, and collaboration can also “prune” individual errors of recall. The net effect of collaboration’s ups and downs is not yet tallied, but these positive effects no doubt contribute to our powerful, shared belief that learning in groups is a good thing.

A New Study Shows That Reading Expands Our Self-Concepts. – via APS- In an upcoming study in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, Gabriel and graduate student Ariana Young show what that something is: When we read, we psychologically become part of the community described in the narrative—be they wizards or vampires. That mechanism satisfies the deeply human, evolutionarily crucial, need for belonging.

John J. Mearsheimer’s “Why Leaders Lie” – via Washington Post- John J. Mearsheimer would disagree. The University of Chicago political scientist argues that the leaders most likely to lie are precisely those in Western democracies, those whose traditions of democracy perversely push them to mislead the very public that elected them. In fact, Mearsheimer says, leaders tend to lie to their own citizens more often than they lie to each other.

Privilege: How Societies Elites Are Made – via Freakonomics – I’ve spent two decades studying the very poor, and only a few years studying the very rich. One common question that people ask me is, “Do the poor and rich differ that much– except for the fact that one has more money?” I do find similarities, some surprising. For example, neither the very poor nor the ultra-wealthy (whom I’ve only recently observed) define their lives via “work.” One can’t find a job, the other doesn’t need a job. For me, a middle-class person, work is one of the core anchors of my identity. My colleague Shamus Khan has written a fascinating book about the making of our wealthiest citizens.

Malleability of Vague Information as a Performance Booster
– via Sagepub- Is the eternal quest for precise information always worthwhile? Our research suggests that, at times, vagueness has its merits. Previous research has demonstrated that people prefer precise information over vague information because it gives them a sense of security and makes their environments more predictable. However, we show that the fuzzy boundaries afforded by vague information can actually help individuals perform better than can precise information. We document these findings across two laboratory studies and one quasi–field study that involved different performance-related contexts (mental acuity, physical strength, and weight loss). We argue that the malleability of vague information allows people to interpret it in the manner they desire, so that they can generate positive response expectancies and, thereby, perform better. The rigidity of precise information discourages desirable interpretations. Hence, on certain occasions, precise information is not as helpful as vague information in boosting performance.

Are Dietary Supplements Working Against You?via APS- Well, according to a study published in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, there seems to be an interesting asymmetrical relationship between the frequency of dietary supplement use and the health status of individuals. Wen-Bin Chiou of National Sun Yat-Sen University decided to test if frequent use of dietary supplements had ironic consequences for subsequent health-related behaviors after observing a colleague chose an unhealthy meal over an organic meal simply because the colleague had taken a multivitamin earlier in the day.

The Effect of Mind Wandering on the Processing of Relevant and Irrelevant Events – via Sagepub- This study used event-related potentials to explore whether mind wandering (task-unrelated thought, or TUT) emerges through general problems in distraction, deficits of task-relevant processing (the executive-function view), or a general reduction in attention to external events regardless of their relevance (the decoupling hypothesis). Twenty-five participants performed a visual oddball task, in which they were required to differentiate between a rare target stimulus (to measure task-relevant processes), a rare novel stimulus (to measure distractor processing), and a frequent nontarget stimulus. TUT was measured immediately following task performance using a validated retrospective measure. High levels of TUT were associated with a reduction in cortical processing of task-relevant events and distractor stimuli. These data contradict the suggestion that mind wandering is associated with distraction problems or specific deficits in task-relevant processes. Instead, the data are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis: that TUT dampens the processing of sensory information irrespective of that information’s task relevance.

Mental accounting in the housing market – via Norges Bank – We report evidence that salience may have economically significant effects on homeowners’ borrowing behavior, through a bias in favour of less salient but more costly loans. We outline a simple model in which some consumers are biased. Under plausible assumptions, the bias may affect prices in equilibrium. Market data support the predictions of the model.

Federal Poker Indictments: Revisiting Prohibition – via Gambling & The Law – Meanwhile, like a raid by Elliot Ness on breweries and speakeasies during Prohibition, there are now wonderful opportunities for new operators to fill the vacuum. Unless, of course, Americans are actually going to stop playing poker on the Internet.

Parasites, minds and cultures: Could the most human of qualities owe their existence to tiny, mindless organisms? – via Psychologist – The littlest of things can have huge evolutionary significance. Before publishing The Origin of Species Charles Darwin spent years studying barnacles. If Darwin were alive today,we suspect that he would be mightily impressed by what we now know about the evolutionary impact of much smaller and more ancient things: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and intestinal worms that parasitise bigger organisms. Where there is life, there are parasites – in immeasurable abundance. These parasites can seriously impair the health and reproductive fitness of the organisms that they infect. All living animals – including humans – are around today because their ancestors evolved ways to elude parasites, generation after generation. This evolutionary process has left huge footprints that researchers are just starting to discern.

The Art of Scientific and Technological Innovations – via Scienceblogs- Most people are at a loss to be able to identify any useful connections between arts and sciences. This ignorance is appalling. Arts provide innovations through analogies, models, skills, structures, techniques, methods, and knowledge. Arts don’t just prettify science or make technology more aesthetic; they often make both possible.

To Tug Hearts, Music First Must Tickle the Neurons – via NYT- Research is showing, for example, that our brains understand music not only as emotional diversion, but also as a form of motion and activity. The same areas of the brain that activate when we swing a golf club or sign our name also engage when we hear expressive moments in music. Brain regions associated with empathy are activated, too, even for listeners who are not musicians.


Power, Confidence, and High-Heels
– via Anthropology in Practice- The adoption of shoes, and the heel, for Greeks appears to coincide with Roman influence, and ultimately Roman conquest. Roman fashion was viewed as a sign of power and status, and shoes represented a state of civilization.

America’s bizarre secret to happiness: More work (while in Europe, the pursuit of pleasure is key) – via Daily Mail – The study’s authors at the University of Texas in Dallas said that working hours do not have a statistically significant impact on Americans’ happiness, but that there is a distinct boost in bliss as the amount of working hours increases.

Elected Oligarchy and Economic Underdevelopment: The Case of Guyana – via MPRA – This study proposes the idea that Guyana’s present government can be categorized as an elected oligarchy. It highlights the existence of several binding constraints (or structural bottlenecks) and demonstrates how these constraints are exacerbated by the elected oligarchy to impair the economic development of the country. Using stylized data on economic trends, the paper illustrates the direct and indirect channels through which the elected oligarchy stifles the private sector and consequently economic progress. As such, the paper presents the elected oligarchy as an alternative channel through which private investments are crowded out by the political strategy of the state.

Why Condom Sales Soar In A Recession, And Other Brand-Building Mysteries Explained
– via Fast company- What do guns, burglar alarms, and condoms have in common? Their sales all boomed in 2009, with condom sales jumping 22% over the same period in 2008. But why? When you are told repeatedly that the world is buckling under the weight of a financial crisis, the first line of defense is to save whatever money you have. That sets a whole new train in motion. Suddenly your local retailer around the corner loses revenue from your less-frequent visits. They are forced to lay off staff, who in turn are spending less, and in fact are no longer buying your products. It becomes a cycle somewhat akin to a self-fulfilling prophecy. We’re told it’s a crisis. We stop spending. They stop spending. Everyone from producer to retailer suffers. And the economic meltdown keeps on melting.

Wishful Thinking: Belief, Desire, and the Motivated Evaluation of Scientific Evidence
– via sagepub- What people believe to be true and what they wish were true can be quite different. One way to resolve conflicts between belief and desire is to engage in biased reasoning in a way that brings beliefs about facts in line with heartfelt desires. Indeed, considerable research has documented ways in which people evaluate evidence in a biased manner in order to reach a particular conclusion ( Kunda, 1990). For instance, classic work on biased assimilation indicates that people whose political convictions are inconsistent with the findings of scientific studies derogate the methodology of such studies ( Lord, Ross, & Lepper, 1979). However, the question of whether such bias in reasoning is due to the motivation to reach a particular conclusion or to purely cognitive factors, such as preexisting theories, expectations, and beliefs, remains an important theoretical issue.

More Evidence Linking Pesticides and Malformations – via Miller McCune- Additional studies suggest that common pesticides may be endocrine disruptors, bad news that nonetheless warms the heart of one citizen scientist.

AV, status quo bias and definitions
– via Knowing & Making – One of the arguments given against the Alternative Vote system is (as laid out in this good but rather long post) that “Under AV the person who comes second can win.” Gowers points out in the linked article that this is not true – all it means is that the person who would have come second under FPTP can win. Of course, the whole point of the referendum is that a different person could win under AV than under FPTP. The reverse argument is equally true: the person who would have come second under AV might win under FPTP.

Is poor fitness contagious? – via Bakadesuyo- Evidence suggests that the effects are caused primarily by friends who were the least fit, thus supporting the provocative notion that poor physical fitness spreads on a person-to-person basis.

Self control makes us angry via Deric Bownds- Exerting self control is usually assoicated with positive emotions and wellbeing, but some research has also shown that exerting self control can lead to increased aggression.

Lecture: Ian Morris on Why the West Rules – via Kedrosky- Ian Morris, author of one of my favorite books of 2010 – Why the West Rules, For Now – gave a seminar on the subject recently as part of the Long Now series.

Richard Thaler: Show Us the Data. (It’s Ours, After All.) – via NYT- This statement may seem self-evident, but the revolution in information technology has created a growing list of exceptions. Your grocery store knows what you like to eat and can probably make educated guesses about other foods you might enjoy. Your wireless carrier knows whom you call, and your phone may know where you’ve been. And your search engine can finish many of your thoughts before you are even done typing them.

Susceptible to Social Influence: Risky “Driving” in Response to Peer Pressure – via Wiley- In 2 studies, college students were socially influenced to be risky or not in a driving simulation. In both studies, confederate peers posing as passengers used verbal persuasion to affect driving behavior. In Study 1, participants encouraged to drive riskily had more accidents and drove faster than those encouraged to drive slowly or not encouraged at all. In Study 2, participants were influenced normatively or informationally to drive safely or riskily. As in Study 1, influence to drive riskily increased risk taking. Additionally, informational influence to drive safely resulted in the least risk taking. Together, the studies highlight the substantial influence of peers in a risk-related situation; in real life, peer influence to be risky could contribute to automobile accidents.

Evidence: The Weak Link Of Evidence-Based Medicine – via Cardiobrief – Evidence-based medicine is a great idea– except for the evidence part. In a powerful op-ed piece in the Boston Globe, Sylvia Pagán Westphal makes the seemingly obvious point that ”evidence-based medicine is only as strong as the evidence used to support it. The stark reality is that evidence can be weak, biased, or even fraudulent.”

Dead Suit Walking: If this isn’t the Great Depression, it is the Great Humbling. Can manhood survive the lost decade?via Newsweek- Capitalism has always been cruel to its castoffs, but those blessed with a college degree and blue-chip résumé have traditionally escaped the worst of it. In recessions past, they’ve kept their jobs or found new ones as easily as they might hail a cab or board the 5:15 to White Plains. But not this time.The suits are “doing worse than they have at any time since the Great Depression,” says Heidi Shierholz, a labor economist at the Economic Policy Institute. And while economists don’t have fine-grain data on the number of these men who are jobless—many, being men, would rather not admit to it—by all indications this hitherto privileged demo isn’t just on its knees, it’s flat on its face. Maybe permanently. Once college-educated workers hit 45, notes a post on the professional-finance blog Calculated Risk, “if they lose their job, they are toast.”

Is prix fixe the path for restaurant revenue optimization? – via Iterative path- It is better for a restaurant to settle for lower revenue from a table as long as it is higher than the opportunity cost. For example, it is profitable to serve a customer who spends $30 if there is a 50% chance the table will remain unoccupied and 50% chance of seating a $55 customer.

A Professional Military and the Privatization of Warfare – via Miller McCune- The antics of private military contractors are increasingly known, and they’re the ones taking over for departing uniformed American troops in Iraq.

Worry and Stress – A Lit Review via Neuroanthropology- Worry, whether as repetitive and intrusive thoughts or as a way to deal with life events and anticipate future problems, clearly mediates between stress and mental health problems like anxiety and depression. Worry works between the amygdala, the prefrontal cortices, and the insula (at a minimum), and works through rumination and anticipation, while also manifesting itself as a suite of sensations and taking concrete expression in dialogue with others. Worry does mediate between stress and anxiety. For example, rumination, as internal or dialogic, could lead to anxiety in the face of uncontrolled, unpredictable stressors or in a lack of sense of control, of being able to do anything about it. However, worry, by driving anticipation and dealing better with life events, can also lead to meaning making and coping, as well as lowering the actual impact of potential major stressors. While the neurobiology matters in this process, particularly in intrusive and repetitive worry that heightens anxiety, the stability of local contexts and the importance of cultural meaning and social relationships also shape how and in what ways worry matters for people.


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Video: How Water Changes Everything – via Flowing Data –

Teachers Salaries Around The World – via Soshable

About Miguel Barbosa

I run this site.

24. April 2005 by Miguel Barbosa
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