Benoit Mandelbrot On Finance
Background On Mandelbrot (via Wikipedia)
Benoît B. Mandelbrotis a French American mathematician, best known as the father of fractal geometry. He is Sterling Professor of Mathematical Sciences, Emeritus at Yale University; IBM Fellow Emeritus at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center; and Battelle Fellow at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He was born in Poland. His family moved to France when he was a child, and he was educated in France. He is a dual French and American citizen. Mandelbrot now lives and works in the United States.
1. A Multifractal Model Of Asset Returns Click Here To Download This Paper
Abstract (Via SSRN) This paper presents the “multifractal model of asset returns” (“MMAR”), based upon the pioneering research into multifractal measures by Mandelbrot (1972, 1974). The multifractal model incorporates two elements of Mandelbrot’s past research that are now well known in finance. First, the MMAR contains long-tails, as in Mandelbrot (1963), which focused on Levy-stable distributions. In contrast to Mandelbrot (1963), this model does not necessarily imply infinite variance. Second, the model contains long-dependence, the characteristic feature of fractional Brownian Motion (FBM), introduced by Mandelbrot and van Ness (1968). In contrast to FBM, the multifractal model displays long dependence in the absolute value of price increments, while price increments themselves can be uncorrelated. As such, the MMAR is an alternative to ARCH-type representations that have been the focus of empirical research on the distribution of prices for the past fifteen years. The distinguishing feature of the multifractal model is multiscaling of the return distribution’s moments under time-rescalings. We define multiscaling, show how to generate processes with this property, and discuss how these processes differ from the standard processes of continuous-time finance. The multifractal model implies certain empirical regularities, which are investigated in a companion paper.
2. Large Deviations and the Distribution of Price Changes Click Here To Download This Paper
Abstract (Via SSRN) The Multifractal Model of Asset Returns (See Mandelbrot, Fisher, and Calvet, 1997 ) proposes a class of multifractal processes for the modelling of financial returns. In that paper, multifractal processes are defined by a scaling law for moments of the processes’ increments over finite time intervals. In the present paper, we discuss the local behavior of multifractal processes. We employ local Holder exponents, a fundamental concept in real analysis that describes the local scaling properties of a realized path at any point in time. In contrast with the standard models of continuous time finance, multifractal processes contain a multiplicity of local Holder exponents within any finite time interval. We characterize the distribution of Holder exponents by the multifractal spectrum of the process. For a broad class of multifractal processes, this distribution can be obtained by an application of Cramer’s Large Deviation Theory. In an alternative interpretation, the multifractal spectrum describes the fractal dimension of the set of points having a given local Holder exponent. Finally, we show how to obtain processes with varied spectra. This allows the applied researcher to relate an empirical estimate of the multifractal spectrum back to a particular construction of the stochastic process.
3. Multifractality of Deutschemark / US Dollar Exchange Rates Click Here To Download This Paper
Abstract (Via SSRN) This paper presents the first empirical investigation of the Multifractal Model of Asset Returns (“MMAR”). The MMAR, developed in Mandelbrot, Fisher, and Calvet (1997) (See Mandelbrot, Fisher, and Calvet, 1997 at the following URL: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=78588 ), is an alternative to ARCH-type representations for modelling temporal heterogeneity in financial returns. Typically, researchers introduce temporal heterogeneity through time-varying conditional second moments in a discrete time framework or time-varying volatility in a continuous time framework. Multifractality introduces a new source of heterogeneity through time-varying local regularity in the price path. The concept of local Holder exponent describes local regularity. Multifractal processes bridge the gap between locally Gaussian (Ito) diffusions and jump-diffusions by allowing a multiplicity of Holder exponents. This paper investigates multifractality in Deutschemark / US Dollar currency exchange rates. After finding evidence of multifractal scaling, we show how to estimate the multifractal spectrum via the Legendre transform. The scaling laws found in the data are replicated in simulations. Further simulation experiments test whether alternative representations, such as FIGARCH, are likely to replicate the multifractal signature of the Deutschemark / US Dollar data. On the basis of this evidence, the MMAR hypothesis appears more likely. Overall, the MMAR is quite successful in uncovering a previously unseen empirical regularity. Additionally, the model generates realistic sample paths and opens the door to new theoretical and applied approaches to asset pricing and risk valuation. We conclude by advocating further empirical study of multifractality in financial data, along with more intensive study of estimation techniques and inference procedures.